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Spanish proverbs
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spanish proverbs are a subset of proverbs that are used in Western cultures in general; there are many that have essentially the same form and content as their counterparts in other Western languages. Proverbs that have their origin in Spanish have migrated to and from English, French, Flemish, German and other languages.
Contents  [hide] 
1 Origins
2 Examples
3 See also
4 References
5 Further reading
Origins[edit]

Many Spanish proverbs have a long history of cultural diffusion; there are proverbs, for example, that have their origin traced to Babylon and that have come down to us through Greece and Rome; equivalents of the Spanish proverb “En boca cerrada no entran moscas” (Silence is golden) belong to the cultural tradition of many north-African countries as far as Ethiopia; having gone through multiple languages and millennia, this proverb can be traced back to an ancient Babylonian proverb.
The written evidence of the use of Spanish proverbs goes far back in Spanish literature. El Cantar de Mio Cid, written at the end of the 11th or the beginning of the 12th century, is the first instance. Examples of other early works that use Spanish proverbs are the Libro de Buen Amor by Juan Ruiz (14th century) and El Corbacho by Alfonso Martínez de Toledo (15th century). The first anthology of Spanish proverbs, Proverbios que dicen las viejas tras el fuego, was written by Íñigo López de Mendoza, Marques of Santillana (15th century). Also in the 15th century was written the Seniloquium, an erudite and anonymous work containing a compendium of Spanish sayings and proverbs with commentaries. The language of the characters in Fernando de Rojas’ La Celestina (15th – 16th century) is enlivened with the use of proverbs. And then, of course, in the 17th century there is the incomparable Don Quijote de la Mancha by Cervantes.
Sancho Panza, Cervantes’ wonderful, earthy, character, is the essential common man. His thinking habitually relies on the authority he vests in the wealth of popular cultural wisdom expressed in proverbs, which he continually quotes. In almost all his utterances there is reference to one and sometimes to more proverbs. Don Quijote is a veritable treasure trove of Spanish proverbs.
There are Spanish proverbs that contradict others; the “wisdom” that they encapsulate is not, of course, absolute. People will use those proverbs that best conform to their own particular way of approaching life. Taken together, however, they reveal the deep wellsprings of Spanish culture and of human nature in general.
Examples[edit]

Al buen callar llaman Sancho.
Literal translation:
The good silence is called Sancho.
Meaning/use:
Recommends prudence and moderation in talk.
Comments:
According to some authors, for instance José Mª Sbarbi, this proverb has its origin in a historical episode involving Sancho II of Castile. When his father Ferdinand I of Leon and Castile at his death in 1065 divided up his kingdom among his three sons, including himself, Sancho II remained silent. Soon after his father's death, however, he turned on his brothers and succeeded in dispossessing them, reuniting thus his father's possessions under his control in 1072. The author Correas, however, sustains that Sancho is used as a variation of the adjective santo (saintly) and should therefore be written in lower-case.
Cada buhonero alaba sus agujas.
Literal translation:
A peddler praises his needles (wares).
Meanings/uses:
Each seller tries to convince potential buyers that his merchandise is the best.
In a broader sense, people tend to praise what is theirs, often overstating qualities.
Used ironically to criticize a person who boasts about his merits.
Cada gallo canta en su muladar.
Literal translation:
Each rooster sings on its dung-heap.
Meanings/uses:
Each person rules in his own house or territory.
A person manifests his true nature when surrounded by family or close friends, when in his own ambience and in his place of origin.
Cada martes tiene su domingo.
Literal translation:
Each Tuesday has its Sunday.
Meaning/Use:
Exhorts to optimism, reminding that bad comes in alternation with good.
Comments:
In this Spanish proverb “good” is represented by Sunday, a festive day in Christian culture, whereas Tuesday, a week-day of less joyous character, stands for “bad”.
Cada uno habla de la feria como le va en ella.
Literal translation:
One talks about the fair according to how one fares.
Meaning/use:
Our way of talking about things reflects our relevant experience, good or bad.
Dime con quien andas y te diré quién eres..
Literal translation:
Tell me who you go with, and I will tell you who you are.
Meaning/use:
According to your friends, mates etc. you will be whether a good person or a not so good person.
Donde comen dos, comen tres..
Literal translation:
Wherever two people eat, three people eat.
Meaning/use:
You can add one person more in any situation you are managing.
El amor es ciego.
Literal translation:
Love is blind
Meaning/use:
We are blind to the defects and failings of our beloved (person or thing).
El amor todo lo iguala.
Literal translation:
Love smoothes life out.
Meaning/use:
Love makes difficulties endurable.
El mejor escribano echa un borrón.
Literal translation:
The best scribe makes a blot.
Meaning/use:
Excuses a first-time fault, especially of a very able person.
El tiempo todo lo cura.
Literal translation:
Time cures all.
Meaning/use:
There are problems, ills and circumstances that are only healed with the passing of time, either by them being actually solved or by us learning to cope with them.
La avaricia rompe el saco.
Literal meaning:
Greed bursts the sack.
Meaning/use:
Greed and excessive ambition can stand in the way of obtaining benefit or success.
Comments:
This Spanish proverb evokes the image of a thief using a sack to carry the objects he steals. When the sack fills up he presses down its contents to make more fit in, making it break and losing his whole loot.
La cara es el espejo del alma.
Literal translation:
The face is the mirror of the soul.
Meaning/use:
Our face reflects our state of health, our character and our mood.
Origin:
Cicero (106-43 BC): 'Ut imago est animi voltus sic indices oculi'
La diligencia es la madre de la buena ventura.
Literal translation:
Diligence is the mother of good fortune.
Meaning/use:
One must be active and diligent in order to achieve one's goals.
La fe mueve montañas.
Literal translation:
Faith moves mountains.
Meaning/use:
Praises the power of the confidence that faith endows us with.
La mejor palabra siempre es la que queda por decir.
Literal translation:
The best word is the one left unsaid.
Meaning/use:
Sings the praises of prudence in talk.
La peor gallina es la que más cacarea.
Literal translation:
The worst hen is the one that clucks the most.
Meaning/use:
It is not rare to see a person boasting and wishing to stand out even though his merits are few and his qualities inadequate.
La sangre sin fuego hierve.
Literal translation:
Blood boils without fire.
Meaning/use:
Comments on the strength of blood bonds.
La suerte está echada.
English equivalent:
The die is cast.
Meaning/use:
Said in the face of a threatening situation the outcome of which one is unable to prevent.
Origin/Comments:
Julius Caesar is reputed to have said Alea iacta est after having crossed the Rubicon river with his legions.
La vida no es un camino de rosas.
Near literal translation and English equivalent:
Life is not a path of roses.
Meaning/use:
It's normal to encounter all kinds of difficulties along the road of life.
Las burlas se vuelven veras.
Literal translation:
Bad jokes become reality.
Meaning/use:
One should be careful when joking to avoid being hurting or offensive. Burlas and veras when used in relationship with one another, the first means “jokingly” and the second “really”.
Las desgracias nunca vienen solas.
Literal translation:
Misfortunes never come one at a time.
Meaning/uses:
Said when several annoyances or setbacks occur at the same time or follow closely one another.
English equivalents:
When it rains, it pours.
It never rains but it pours.
Similar Spanish proverb:
Un mal llama a otro.
Lo comido es lo seguro.
Literal translation:
You can only be really certain of what is already in your belly.
Meaning/use:
When confronted with a choice between something certain and something uncertain, this Spanish proverb is used to gravitate towards the first.
Los años no pasan en balde.
Literal translation:
Years don't pass in vain.
Meaning/use:
Resign oneself to the ravages of time, particularly illness and old age.
English equivalent:
Years take their toll.
Los árboles no dejan ver el bosque.
English equivalent:
One can't see the forest for the trees.
Meaning/use:
Attention to detail can make one lose perspective.
Los celos son malos consejeros.
Literal translation:
Jealousy is a bad counsellor.
Meaning/use:
Jealousy does not lead to sensible behaviour.
Los tiempos cambian.
Literal translation:
Times change.
Meaning/use:
Exhorts to adapt to changing circumstances and not indulge in lamentations and useless comparisons.
Mañana será otro día.
Literal translation:
Tomorrow will be another day.
Meaning/use:
Recommends to let matters rest and leave for another day and a clearer head the search for a solution to a problem or situation.
Variation:
Mañana será otro día, y verá el tuerto los espárragos.
Nadie está contento con su suerte.
Literal translation:
No one is satisfied with his fortune.
Meaning/use:
Alludes to a person who is forever dissatisfied with his lot and has never enough.
Ningún jorobado ve su joroba.
Literal translation:
No hunchback sees his own hump.
Meaning/use:
Reprehends a person who criticizes others for defects which are also his own, maybe even more acutely so.
No cantan dos gallos en un gallinero.
Literal translation:
Two roosters do not crow in a henhouse.
Meaning/use:
Peace is disrupted when two want to impose their authority at the same time and place.
No hay harina sin salvado.
Literal translation:
No flour without bran.
Meaning/use:
One can't have everything in life, there are always drawbacks.
No por mucho madrugar, amanece más temprano..
Literal translation:
No matter if you rise early because it does not sunrise earlier.
Meaning/use:
Things have its moment, you can be in hurry but you will not get anything.
No se puede hacer tortilla sin romper los huevos.
Literal translation:
One can't make an omelette without breaking eggs.
Meaning/use:
Alludes to the effort necessary to achieve a goal and the damage that may be done in the course of creating something new.
No todas las verdades son para dichas.
Literal translation:
Not every truth should be said.
Meaning/use:
There are truths one should better keep to oneself.
No todo el monte es orégano.
Literal translation:
The whole hillside is not covered in spice.
Meanings/uses:
In any endeavor, not everything is easy and pleasurable.
Indicates that things are not what one imagined them to be.
Comments:
Oregano is an aromatic plant used as a spice. It symbolizes easiness, benefit and good, since it was once used as a remedy against many illnesses. The word “oregano” is of Greek origin and means “plant that gladdens the hill”.
Nunca llueve a gusto de todos.
Literal translation:
It never rains to everyone's taste.
Meaning/use:
What some find agreeable and pleasurable others find bothersome and annoying.
Perro ladrador, poco mordedor..
Literal translation:
A dog that barks often seldom bites.
Meaning/use:
Those who threaten very often likely will not able to carry out these threats.
Todos los caminos llevan a Roma.
Literal translation and English equivalent:
All roads lead to Rome.
Meaning/use:

Goals can be achieved by different means.

George Santayana
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
George Santayana
A line drawing of the face and upper torso of George Santayana as a middle-aged man. He is balding, wearing a suit, and looking away from the viewer to the right.
A drawing of George Santayana from the early 20th century.
Born Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás
December 16, 1863
Madrid, Community of Madrid, Spain
Died September 26, 1952 (aged 88)
Rome, Lazio, Italy
Nationality Spanish-American
Era 20th century philosophy
Region Western Philosophy
School
Pragmatism Naturalism
Alma mater Harvard University
King's College, Cambridge
Notable ideas Lucretian materialism
Skepticism
Natural aristocracy
The Realms of Being
Influenced by[show]
Influenced[show]
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known as George Santayana (December 16, 1863 – September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. A lifelong Spanish citizen, Santayana was raised and educated in the United States and identified himself as an American, although he always kept a valid Spanish passport.[1] He wrote in English and is generally considered an American man of letters. At the age of forty-eight, Santayana left his position at Harvard and returned to Europe permanently, never to return to the United States. His last will was to be buried in the Spanish Pantheon of the Cimitero Monumentale del Verano in Rome.
Santayana is known for famous sayings, such as "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it",[2] and "[O]nly the dead have seen the end of war." (a quote often wrongly attributed to Plato).[3] Santayana is broadly included among the pragmatists with Harvard University colleagues William James and Josiah Royce. He said that he stood in philosophy "exactly where [he stood] in daily life."[4]
Contents  [hide] 
1 Biography
1.1 Early life
1.2 Education
1.3 Travels
1.4 Philosophical work and publications
1.5 Man of letters
2 Awards
3 Legacy
4 Bibliography
5 See also
6 References
7 Further reading
8 External links
Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]
Born Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás on December 16, 1863 in Madrid, he spent his early childhood in Ávila, Spain. His mother, Josefina Borrás, was the daughter of a Spanish official in the Philippines, and Jorge was the only child of her second marriage. She was the widow of George Sturgis, a Boston merchant with whom she had five children, two of whom died in infancy. She lived in Boston for a few years following her husband's death in 1857, but in 1861 moved with her three surviving children to live in Madrid. There she encountered Agustín Ruiz de Santayana, an old friend from her years in the Philippines. They married in 1862. A colonial civil servant, Ruiz de Santayana was also a painter and minor intellectual.
The family lived in Madrid and Ávila until 1869, when Josefina Borrás de Santayana returned to Boston with her three Sturgis children, as she had promised her first husband to raise the children in the United States. She left the six-year-old Jorge with his father in Spain. Jorge and his father followed her in 1872, but his father, finding neither Boston nor his wife's attitude to his liking, soon returned alone to Ávila. He remained there the rest of his life. Jorge did not see him again until he entered Harvard University and took his summer vacations in Spain. Sometime during this period, Jorge's first name was anglicized as George, the English equivalent.
Education[edit]
Hollis Hall: a four-story red brick building with white trim in a courtyard.

Santayana lived in Hollis Hall as a student at Harvard.
Santayana attended Boston Latin School and Harvard University, where he studied under the philosophers William James and Josiah Royce and was involved in eleven clubs as an alternative to athletics. He was founder and president of the Philosophical Club, was a member of the literary society known as the O.K., was an editor and cartoonist for The Harvard Lampoon and helped found the literary journal, The Harvard Monthly.[5] In December, 1885, he played the role of Lady Elfrida in the Hasty Pudding Theatrical, Robin Hood, followed by the production Papillonetta the spring of his senior year.[6] After graduating Phi Beta Kappa from Harvard,[7] in 1886, Santayana studied for two years in Berlin.[8] He then returned to Harvard to write his dissertation on Hermann Lotze and teach philosophy, becoming part of the Golden Age of the Harvard philosophy department. Some of his Harvard students became famous in their own right, including T. S. Eliot, Robert Frost, Gertrude Stein, Horace Kallen, Walter Lippmann, and W. E. B. Du Bois. Wallace Stevens was not among his students but became a friend.[9] From 1896 to 1897, Santayana studied at King's College, Cambridge.[10]
Travels[edit]
In 1912, Santayana resigned his position in Harvard to spend the rest of his life in Europe. He had saved money and been aided by a legacy from his mother. After some years in Ávila, Paris and Oxford, after 1920, he began to winter in Rome, eventually living there year-round until his death. During his 40 years in Europe, he wrote nineteen books and declined several prestigious academic positions. Many of his visitors and correspondents were Americans, including his assistant and eventual literary executor, Daniel Cory. In later life, Santayana was financially comfortable, in part because his 1935 novel, The Last Puritan, had become an unexpected best-seller. In turn, he financially assisted a number of writers, including Bertrand Russell, with whom he was in fundamental disagreement, philosophically and politically. Santayana never married. His romantic life, if any, is not well-understood.
Philosophical work and publications[edit]
The first page of Egotism in German Philosophy

Although schooled in German idealism, Santayana was critical of it and made an effort to distance himself from its epistemology.
Santayana's main philosophical work consists of The Sense of Beauty (1896), his first book-length monograph and perhaps the first major work on aesthetics written in the United States; The Life of Reason five volumes, 1905–6, the high point of his Harvard career; Scepticism and Animal Faith (1923); and The Realms of Being (4 vols., 1927–40). Although Santayana was not a pragmatist in the mold of William James, Charles Sanders Peirce, Josiah Royce, or John Dewey, The Life of Reason arguably is the first extended treatment of pragmatism written.
Like many of the classical pragmatists, and because he was also well-versed in evolutionary theory, Santayana was committed to metaphysical naturalism. He believed that human cognition, cultural practices, and social institutions have evolved so as to harmonize with the conditions present in their environment. Their value may then be adjudged by the extent to which they facilitate human happiness. The alternate title to The Life of Reason, "the Phases of Human Progress", is indicative of this metaphysical stance.
Santayana was an early adherent of epiphenomenalism, but also admired the classical materialism of Democritus and Lucretius (of the three authors on whom he wrote in Three Philosophical Poets, Santayana speaks most favorably of Lucretius). He held Spinoza's writings in high regard, calling him his "master and model".[11]
Although an agnostic, he held a fairly benign view of religion, in contrast to Bertrand Russell who held that religion was harmful. Santayana's views on religion are outlined in his books Reason in Religion, The Idea of Christ in the Gospels, and Interpretations of Poetry and Religion. Santayana described himself as an "aesthetic Catholic". He spent the last decade of his life at the Convent of the Blue Nuns of the Little Company of Mary on the Celian Hill at 6 Via Santo Stefano Rotondo in Rome, where he was cared for by the Irish sisters.
Man of letters[edit]


Santayana early in his career.
Santayana's one novel, The Last Puritan, is a bildungsroman, meaning a novel that centers on the personal growth of the protagonist. His Persons and Places is an autobiography. These works also contain many of his sharper opinions and bons mots. He wrote books and essays on a wide range of subjects, including philosophy of a less technical sort, literary criticism, the history of ideas, politics, human nature, morals, the subtle influence of religion on culture and social psychology, all with considerable wit and humor. While his writings on technical philosophy can be difficult, his other writings are far more accessible and pithy. He wrote poems and a few plays, and left an ample correspondence, much of it published only since 2000.
Like Alexis de Tocqueville, Santayana observed American culture and character from a foreigner's point of view. Like William James, his friend and mentor, he wrote philosophy in a literary way. Although he declined to become an American citizen and resided in fascist Italy for decades, Santayana is usually considered an American writer. But he said that he was most comfortable, intellectually and aesthetically, at Oxford University.
His works are being more widely translated to Spanish recently. Ezra Pound includes Santayana among his many cultural references in The Cantos, notably in "Canto LXXXI" and "Canto XCV".
Awards[edit]

Royal Society of Literature Benson Medal, 1925.[12]
Columbia University Butler Gold Medal, 1945.[13]
Honorary degree from the University of Wisconsin, 1911.[14]
Legacy[edit]

A black placard with white text reading: "KTO NIE PAMIẸTA HISTORII SKAZANY / JEST NA JEJ PONOWNE PRZEŻYCIE" / GEORGE SANTAYANA / "THE ONE WHO DOES NOT REMEMBER / HISTORY IS BOUND TO LIVE THROUGH IT / AGAIN" / GEORGE SANTAYANA
A green brick wall with a white sign reading "Wer die Vergangenheit nicht kennt, / ist dazu verurteilt, sie zu wiederholden. / (G. Santayana 1863–1953, Philosoph)
Santayana's famous aphorism "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" is inscribed on a plaque at the Auschwitz concentration camp in Polish translation and English back-translation (above), and on a subway placard in Germany (below)
Santayana is remembered in large part for his aphorisms, many of which have been so frequently used as to have become clichéd. His philosophy has not fared quite as well. Although he is regarded by most as an excellent prose stylist, Professor John Lachs (who is sympathetic with much of Santayana's philosophy) writes in his book On Santayana that the latter's eloquence may ultimately be the cause of this neglect.
Santayana influenced those around him, including Bertrand Russell, who in his critical essay admits that Santayana single-handedly steered him away from the ethics of G. E. Moore.[15] He also influenced many prominent people such as Harvard students T. S. Eliot, Robert Frost, Gertrude Stein, Horace Kallen, Walter Lippmann, W. E. B. Du Bois, Conrad Aiken, Van Wyck Brooks, and Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, as well as Max Eastman and the poet Wallace Stevens. Stevens was especially influenced by Santayana's aesthetics and became a friend even though Stevens did not take courses taught by Santayana.[16][17][18]
Santayana is quoted by the Canadian-American sociologist Erving Goffman as a central influence in the thesis of his famous book The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959). Religious historian Jerome A. Stone credits Santayana with contributing to the early thinking in the development of religious naturalism.[19]
Chuck Jones used Santayana's description of fanaticism as "redoubling your effort after you've forgotten your aim" to describe his cartoons starring Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner.[20]


Along with Wendell Phillips and John F. Kennedy, Santayana is quoted on a military plaque at Veterans Memorial Park in Rhome, Texas.
Bibliography[edit]



Santayana's Reason in Common Sense was published in five volumes between 1905 and 1906; this edition is from 1920.
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v t e
2009. The Essential Santayana. Selected Writings Edited by the Santayana Edition, Compiled and with an introduction by Martin A. Coleman. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
The Works of George Santayana
Unmodernized, critical editions of George Santayana’s published and unpublished writing. The Works is edited by the Santayana Edition and published by The MIT Press.
1986. Persons and Places. Santayana's autobiography, incorporating Persons and Places, 1944; The Middle Span, 1945; and My Host the World, 1953.
1988 (1896). The Sense of Beauty.
1990 (1900). Interpretations of Poetry and Religion.
1994 (1935). The Last Puritan: A Memoir in the Form of a Novel.
The Letters of George Santayana. Containing over 3,000 of his letters, many discovered posthumously, to more than 350 recipients.
2001. Book One, 1868–1909.
2001. Book Two, 1910–1920.
2002. Book Three, 1921–1927.
2003. Book Four, 1928–1932.
2003. Book Five, 1933–1936.
** 2005. Book Seven, 1941–1947.
2006. Book Eight, 1948–1952.
2011. George Santayana's Marginalia: A Critical Selection. Compiled by John O. McCormick and edited by Kristine W. Frost.
The Life of Reason in five books.
2011 (1905). Reason in Common Sense.
Other works:
1905–1906. The Life of Reason: Or, The Phases of Human Progress, 5 vols. Available free online from Project Gutenberg. 1998. 1 vol. abridgement by the author and Daniel Cory. Prometheus Books.
1910. Three Philosophical Poets: Lucretius, Dante, and Goethe.
1913. Winds of Doctrine: Studies in Contemporary Opinion.
1915. Egotism in German Philosophy.
1920. Character and Opinion in the United States: With Reminiscences of William James and Josiah Royce and Academic Life in America.
1920. Little Essays, Drawn From the Writings of George Santayana by Logan Pearsall Smith, With the Collaboration of the Author.
1922. Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies.
1923. Scepticism and Animal Faith: Introduction to a System of Philosophy.
1927. Platonism and the Spiritual Life.
1927–40. The Realms of Being, 4 vols. 1942. 1 vol.
1931. The Genteel Tradition at Bay.
1933. Some Turns of Thought in Modern Philosophy: Five Essays Librivox free audio book
1936. Obiter Scripta: Lectures, Essays and Reviews. Justus Buchler and Benjamin Schwartz, eds.
1946. The Idea of Christ in the Gospels; or, God in Man: A Critical Essay.
1948. Dialogues in Limbo, With Three New Dialogues.
1951. Dominations and Powers: Reflections on Liberty, Society, and Government.
1955. The Letters of George Santayana. Daniel Cory, ed. Charles Scribner's Sons. New York. (296 letters)
1956. Essays in Literary Criticism of George Santayana. Irving Singer, ed.
1957. The Idler and His Works, and Other Essays. Daniel Cory, ed.
1967. The Genteel Tradition: Nine Essays by George Santayana. Douglas L. Wilson, ed.
1967. George Santayana's America: Essays on Literature and Culture. James Ballowe, ed.
1967. Animal Faith and Spiritual Life: Previously Unpublished and Uncollected Writings by George Santayana With Critical Essays on His Thought. John Lachs, ed.
1968. Santayana on America: Essays, Notes, and Letters on American Life, Literature, and Philosophy. Richard Colton Lyon, ed.
1968. Selected Critical Writings of George Santayana, 2 vols. Norman Henfrey, ed.
1969. Physical Order and Moral Liberty: Previously Unpublished Essays of George Santayana. John and Shirley Lachs, eds.
1979. The Complete Poems of George Santayana: A Critical Edition. Edited, with an introduction, by W. G. Holzberger. Bucknell University Press.
1995. The Birth of Reason and Other Essays. Daniel Cory, ed., with an Introduction by Herman J. Saatkamp, Jr. Columbia Univ. Press.
See also[edit]

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Portal icon Conservatism portal
American philosophy
List of American philosophers
The Harvard Monthly
References[edit]

Jump up ^ George Santayana, "Apologia Pro Mente Sua," in P. A. Schilpp, The Philosophy of George Santayana, (1940), 603.
Jump up ^ George Santayana (1905) Reason in Common Sense, p. 284, volume 1 of The Life of Reason
Jump up ^ George Santayana (1922) Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies, number 25
Jump up ^ Santayana, George (March 5, 2009), Coleman, Martin A., ed., The Essential Santayana: Selected Writings (Paperback) (1st ed.), Bloomington, Indiana, United States: Indiana University Press, p. xxv, ISBN 0-253-22105-6
Jump up ^ Parri, Alice Two Harvard Friends: Charles Loeser and George Santayana[1]
Jump up ^ Garrison, Lloyd McKim, An Illustrated History of the Hasty Pudding Club Theatricals, Cambridge, Hasty Puddding Club, 1897.
Jump up ^ Who Belongs To Phi Beta Kappa, ’Phi Beta Kappa website’’, accessed Oct 4, 2009
Jump up ^ "SANTAYANA, George". Who's Who, 59: p. 1555. 1907.
Jump up ^ Lensing, George S. (1986). Wallace Stevens: A Poet's Growth. LSU Press. 313 pp. ISBN 0807112976. p.12-13.
Jump up ^ "Santayana, George (SNTN896G)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
Jump up ^ The Letters of George Santayana: Book Eight, 1948-1952 By George Santayana p 8:39
Jump up ^ http://www.rslit.org/benson-medal
Jump up ^ George Santayana; William G. Holzberger (Editor). (2006). The Letters of George Santayana, Book Seven, 1941-1947. (MIT Press (MA), Hardcover, 9780262195560, 569pp.) (p. 143).
Jump up ^ http://www.secfac.wisc.edu/committees/honorarydegrees/PastRecipients.asp
Jump up ^ Michael K. Potter. Bertrand Russell’s Ethics. London and New York: Continuum, 2006. Pp. xiii, 185. isbn 0826488102, p.4
Jump up ^ Lensing, George S. (1986). Wallace Stevens: A Poet's Growth. LSU Press. 313 pp. ISBN 0807112976. p.12-23.
Jump up ^ http://pabook.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/bios/Stevens__Wallace.html
Jump up ^ Saatkamp, Herman, "George Santayana", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/santayana/>
Jump up ^ Religious Naturalism Today, page 44–52
Jump up ^ See the sixth paragraph, That's Not All, Folks! "Of course you know this means war." Who said it?, by Terry Teachout, The Wall Street Journal, November 25, 2003, (Archived at WebCite).
Further reading[edit]

W. Arnett, 1955. Santayana and the Sense of Beauty, Bloomington, Indiana University Press.
H.T. Kirby-Smith, 1997. A Philosophical Novelist: George Santayana and the Last Puritan. Southern Illinois University Press.
Jeffers, Thomas L., 2005. Apprenticeships: The Bildungsroman from Goethe to Santayana. New York: Palgrave: 159–84.
Lamont, Corliss, ed., 1959. Dialogue on George Santayana. Horizon Press.
McCormick, John, 1987. George Santayana: A Biography. Alfred A. Knopf. The biography.
Singer, Irving, 2000. George Santayana, Literary Philosopher. Yale University Press.
External links[edit]

Find more about George Santayana at Wikipedia's sister projects
Media from Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Database entry Q237833 on Wikidata
Works by George Santayana at Project Gutenberg
Speaker Icon.svg George Santayana public domain audiobooks from LibriVox
George Santayana entry by Herman Saatkamp in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Includes a complete bibliography of the primary literature, and a fair selection of the secondary literature
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: George Santayana by Matthew C. Flamm
The Santayana Edition
Overheard in Seville: Bulletin of the Santayana Society
"George Santayana: Catholic Atheist" by Richard Butler in Spirituality Today, Vol. 38 (Winter 1986), p. 319
George Santayana on the Open Directory Project

Works by or about George Santayana at Archive.org.


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